Neil Young & Crazy Horse have been making some big moves lately. Earlier this month, Young and the explosive rock group—which features Billy Talbot, Ralph Molina, and Nils Lofgren—reunited for the first the time since 2014 when they hosted a two-night stand in Fresno, CA, featuring a few huge bust outs that hadn’t been played in decades.Fortunately, it doesn’t sound like the fun will be stopping here. In a new interview with Yahoo, Young said, “four or five Crazy Horse albums that have never been heard, that are sitting there ready to come out.” Evidently, the albums will be released via the Neil Young Archives, a densely-packed site that showcases five decades worth of Young’s output, including studio material and vintage live recordings. Additionally, Young has also revealed that an animated film he intended to release with his 1982 electronic music album Trans is finally in the works. The iconic singer-songwriter and guitarist told Yahoo that the movie was never filmed due to disputes with his record label Geffen (the label eventually sued him because his early ‘80s output was “unrepresentative” of his earlier work). While Trans was a commercially and artistically divisive release in its day, the record was Young’s way of making a statement about the difficulty of communicating with his son Ben, who was born with cerebral palsy. According to Young, he is currently planning to produce the 35-minute film with the help of Willie Nelson’s son Micah.[H/T – JamBase]
[Video: sgibson818]Given that The Meters’ original keyboardist Art Neville rarely plays these days, for this special LOCKN’ performance on August 25th, Foundation Of Funk is keeping it all in the family. To help celebrate The Meters’ 50th anniversary, the band has also invited Art’s brother, Cyril Neville; son, Ian Neville; and nephew, Ivan Neville, along with Ian and Ivan’s Dumpstaphunk bandmate, Tony Hall.As George Porter Jr. told us about the upcoming Meters celebration at LOCKN’, “We were definitely thinkin’ that this is a good idea. I mean this is 50 years, and there’s no one doin’ it. None of us are doin’ it. In other words, the band itself can’t pull that off, so, you know, why not Foundation of Funk?”Adds Zigaboo,We have some other individuals from New Orleans that’ll be doing the show with us. Some of them are in the Neville family, and some of them are just younger artists that followed The Meters’ music very very closely. I’m not feeling anything but excellence coming from these people because they have really studied my craft and studied it to a degree that we could actually do this. They all get the whole chemistry of how it actually works and how to make it funky, like it should be. I think it’s gonna be fantastic, it’s gonna be challenging. It’s all about performing the music the way it actually should be performed. So these people—Ivan, Ian, Tony Hall, and Cyril—they’re gonna support us with our endeavor at LOCKN’, and we look forward to doing it with that group. It seems like an obvious choice at this point. The Meters’ LegacyWith The Meters’ 50th anniversary celebration on the horizon, it’s clear that the band certainly deserves the recognition. The New Orleans band pioneered funk music as we know it today and is increasingly being recognized for its vast contributions to music. This year, in addition to getting nominated (and snubbed) for induction into the Rock & Roll Hall Of Fame for the fourth time, the Recording Academy recognized the band with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.As Zigaboo Modeliste explained to us about receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, “I think it’s a thrill. When I look at the past recipients of the award, that makes me know even more that The Meters really hit a stride, and that will never go away. It seems like a lot of people recognize our talent level and what we brought to the table as we turned out original music—and good music.”The Meters – 1974[Video: FunkensteinJr]Over the years, the band’s wealth of good material has proven to be enduring. Outside their celebrated classics like “Sophisticated Cissy”, “Cissy Strut”, “People Say”, and “Africa”, the group has influenced countless artists from a huge range of genres. In fact, The Meters’ locked-in rhythms have frequently found their way into hip-hop and pop music, making them one of the most sampled groups in history—as George Porter noted, “there were 120 some odd samples done” over the years.Zigaboo offered his thoughts on The Meters’ enduring presence in hip-hop:It’s still too early for me to tell exactly how The Meters’ music will continue to fit into hip-hop, but I think the Meters music is here to stay. I didn’t even understand how it got into rap, you know? But it went there, and it went there huge. Rappers sampled our songs because of the emptiness. Even though these songs had structure, they had a lot of open spaces where people could talk over it—so it worked really well in that aspect. Hip-hop kind of disappeared for a minute, it lost its pizzazz, and now it’s coming back with a new resurgence in New Orleans and stuff. But music is music, and people copy off of music that they hear that they like, so it all depends on how the music fits into their universe. I have no doubt that the foundation that we laid is going to regenerate again. And there’s gonna be some other kind of music after hip-hop. I don’t know what that’s gonna be, but it’s gonna go there, too.While The Meters’ crossover into hip-hop might have been unexpected at first, it highlights the iconic band’s ongoing appeal to funk-loving fans and artists for nearly half-century. However, The Meters never set out to become the pioneering force that they’re known as today. Originally a studio band, the group is what Zigaboo describes “musicians’ musicians.” He explained,I think the message is really clear, it may not have been transmitted as much as it could have been. But I think every time the Meters showed up at an appearance, it was music from the heart and it was music well thought out. And we always were self-contained. We started up as an instrumental group, and we tried to keep morphing into different aspects of the music. And we respect the fact that funk music lovers need to be fed.You have to really be a music lover and you have to appreciate what this type of music at this particular time period presented to the listeners. And I think that’s what really keeps people captivated. It’s a host of things. It’s the performance—personnel, okay I’ll buy that—but it’s the performance. And a good song is really a good song. And we just have had a host of really good material that we recorded.The Meters & The Jam SceneAs the years have gone on, The Meters have cultivated a massive following within another genre outside funk: the jam scene. George Porter Jr. is a staple on jam-oriented events like Jam Cruise and has appeared multiple times with artists like Widespread Panic, Phil Lesh & Friends, Lettuce, Bob Weir & The Campfire Band, and many others. Though Porter was a member of Grateful Dead drummer Bill Kreutzmann‘s side project, 7 Walkers, earlier in the decade, Porter truly solidified his adoration from Deadheads through his work with Voodoo Dead, a NOLA-flavored Dead tribute project formed for Jazz Fest in 2015 with all-star lineups that have featured the likes of Steve Kimock, Jeff Chimenti, Jackie Greene, Anders Osborne, Oteil Burbridge, and others.In February, George Porter Jr. joined forces with another band the 2018 LOCKN’ bill—Dead & Company—much to the delight of fans. Dead & Company was in New Orleans for a make-up show, and Porter joined the ensemble for takes on “Smokestack Lightning”, “Bertha’, and “Sugaree”—a truly exciting moment given how infrequently the band welcomes special guests. Much like how Foundation of Funk honors The Meters, Dead & Company pairs original Grateful Dead members (Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann) with duly reverent fresh faces (John Mayer, Oteil Burbridge, and Jeff Chimenti) to celebrate the songbook of an influential band. However, aside from a handful of sit-ins, Dead & Co’s lineup has remained constant since their inception in 2015.George Porter Jr. explained to us how the Dead & Co sit-in came about:Every member of the band, except for the guitarist, John [Mayer], I had played with, I knew, and was friends with. The first time they were going to come to New Orleans, Bill [Kreutzmann] had reached out to me about comin’ and sittin’ in, but then, that show was canceled. After the second one was confirmed, it was Mickey [Hart] that called and asked me if I wanted to come and sit in. Shortly after I heard from Micky, I heard from Bobby [Weir]’s front office, sayin’, “Bobby wanted to know if you could come out and jam with them?” There are friends of mine that were serious Deadhead people, and they were like, “Brah, that never happens,” you know? They don’t have people come sit in and stuff like that. So it was a great honor to be one of those people that they invited to come play. …I mean, it wasn’t like we sat down and thought out how these songs were going to be approached. We did have a rehearsal sound check, and after the rehearsal sound check, we did pretty much have an idea of how it was going to start and how it was going to end, but everything that happened in the middle was a spontaneous combustion.Dead & Company w/ George Porter Jr. – “Smokestack Lightning”, “Bertha”, “Sugaree” – New Orleans, LA – 2/24/2018[Video: rdeal1999]While George Porter Jr. is wildly recognized within the jam scene because of his frequent sit-ins, that is not to say that Zigaboo Modeliste has no roots in the genre. In fact, Modeliste first founded Foundation of Funk years ago as a way to perform with a variety of jam artists, inviting his brother in rhythm, George, to help him lead the project. Both Zigaboo and George acknowledge that jam bands tend to gravitate toward The Meters’ music. However, they both seem hesitant toward the modern “jam band” classification in general. Explains George on The Meters’ link to the jam band world,Well, it kinda leads back to the original Meters. Back in the late ’60s and early ’70s almost, out of those first three records that came out, the longest song on those records is probably three minutes at the most. We were playing pretty much four-hour gigs, so we played a song and then we’d just jam and stretch out. So we were jamming, and as far as The Meters are concerned, in ’68, ’69, ’70, we were a jam band or whatever you call a jam band today—that’s what we were. Improvisational players that played off of each other really well. It’s kind of something that I’ve been doing almost all my life. It’s a natural fit, I guess that would be the best way to say that.When asked about jam bands, Zigaboo Modeliste added,I don’t consider musicians based on the “jam band” concept. We all come from different bands, and we all have played in hundreds of bands over our careers. That’s just part of the process of getting to where you want to get to. To try different bands out. Some of us are lucky enough to be in a band for 25 years. Some of us are lucky enough to be in bands for 25 minutes. It just varies.You’re constantly trying to learn more about your acts, you know? But again, the musicians with the jam band thing, that’s just a name they gave. There’s hardly any more original bands. The only original bands I see are bands that are up-and-coming. The life expectancy of jam bands is not that long. It’s not what they set it up to be. It’s just something, like, “Oh, let me mix and match.” I’m sure that’s interesting to a certain degree. But is it music? Is everybody on the same page with it? Experimenting with that is good.Foundation Of FunkWhile it’s clear that The Meters have made an undeniable impact on music as we know it today, George Porter Jr. and Zigaboo Modeliste are looking to the future with Foundation of Funk. The band extends The Meters’ legacy into the present, with the two rhythm legends curating varying lineups of musicians who will continue to play songs from The Meters’ songbook for decades to come. However, given The Meters’ extensive repertoire, the project remains fresh, with the rotating lineup only adding to Foundation of Funk’s exploratory spirit.As George Porter Jr. explained to us,I think it’s a great benefit having the lineup change constantly! Whenever the guys get selected to play a gig, I make it a rule that I’ll make the phone call or send an e-mail to them asking them for the list of songs that they have under their fingers. And almost all the time, the players that are on that individual set come back with a list of songs that The Meters usually have not played. For me, that’s great, ’cause The Meters had somewhat cycled into playing the same set of songs all the time.Going off this, Zigaboo Modeliste continued, explaining the benefits of exploring deeper cuts from The Meters’ catalog,We never really played all the music that we recorded. There’s a lot of music that was just left on the table. We never got a chance to even go and do it. So, the mindset at that particular time was what it was. So, in order to go back and visit that, you gotta have some kind of way to deal with it. [George and I] both thought that maybe we should not only do the standard songs but try to get into those obscure Meter songs. That was fantastic as well. The listeners can have a broader range of music to listen to and maybe create a greater appreciation for the other songs that we never hardly played.Foundation of Funk – “What’cha Say” – Bear Creek 2016[Video: Live For Live Music]Historically, Foundation of Funk has sought out the best and brightest musicians to help them dive deep into The Meters’ catalog, having previously rounded out the group with greats like Eric Krasno, Anders Osborne, John Medeski, Jimmy Herring, Jojo Hermann, Jon Cleary, Neal Evans, and Eddie Roberts. If anything, the band has a roster of musicians who fit perfectly with the project, though they find that “the hardest part about [Foundation of Funk] is getting the right personnel with the right availability, so we could play some music and enjoy it,” says Zigaboo.In describing what Foundation of Funk looks for in its collaborators, Zigaboo explained,Well, it’s just like anything else. Musicians are just like chefs. They don’t want anything to be stale. They don’t want anything to be routine, so to speak, because that makes it kind of boring. The freshness of collaborating with other progressive and extremely talented individuals from other music genres and people who respect our music, I feel as though that’s being accomplished. Like I said, [The Meters] were a self-contained band. We didn’t really need other people in the band to do what we did, but now, we choose to do it this way. We want to get the best people that are out there to come jam with us and make history together.We try to find some people that push the bar. I don’t think it would be a good idea to collaborate with people that don’t know have any indication of how the music goes or that don’t have any Meters favorites locked somewhere in their vault. There’ve got to be certain people we choose to do it with, you know? It wouldn’t make sense to get somebody that’s not totally committed to the music, per se. So, just trying to cherry pick musicians and opportunities, it’s been a bit of a challenge. I feel as though we work with enough musicians right now, that it can still be really fresh.I think that the people that we’ve had so far, they’ve all been great. They’ve all been doing exactly what we want them to do. They’ve brought more to the table in some instances than I really thought they would. So, it really is a winning situation because I get to play with those guys that appreciate the music just as much as I do. So that right there, that’s a big hurdle to jump over. Foundation of Funk – “Just Kissed My Baby” > “Ain’t No Use” – Sunshine Music Festival 2018[Video: CHeeSeHeaDPRoDuCTioNS]With a grounded perspective on their lineup additions, Foundation of Funk hopes to continue spreading the message of The Meters to fans on the road and in their homes. When asked about the possibility of a new album or more consistent touring, both George and Zigaboo made it clear that they have thought about it. As Zigaboo explained,Well, that’s an open question. I don’t wanna say no to any of that, but the most important thing to be considered is if it’s attainable. If it’s possible, there probably will be some of that—I don’t know. My thing is, it all depends on my comrade, what he’s thinking. We’ve been kicking around the idea of a vinyl because anything that I wanna be involved with in terms of recording the Foundation of Funk, I really would like it to be good. And not saying that it wouldn’t be good, but we have a lot of questions still unanswered. It’s like a test tube, you know? You gotta try and figure out what music to play, who’s gonna do it with us, where we’re gonna do it, if we do it. However, George Porter Jr. seemed more hopeful toward the possibility, adding, “I’d like to see Zig and I do some new music. In fact, we have started the recording process for three or four songs. I went out to California and laid down some tracks with Zig, and we did some overdubs on those songs. I haven’t heard them since then, that was almost a year ago now.” George Porter Jr. continued,I guess it kinda leads down to the fact that my personal solo career with the three bands that I play in are all over the place, so I’m not as easily available as much as anyone would want me to be in order to be a real member of a band. But now that we have management and agencies, maybe they can knock out some windows where Zig and I can get together with some players that we would like to. I would hope that we do a record that might involve several different players. If we were to put together a real record, I would think that it would be very necessary that we go out and support it. So yeah, I would think that a real tour would probably eventually come from that.LOCKN’ Festival will return to Arrington, Virginia, from August 23rd to 26th. This year, in addition to the highly anticipated Foundation of Funk set celebrating 50 years of The Meters, the festival will host multiple nights of Dead & Company (including one with Branford Marsalis), Tedeschi Trucks Band, Umphrey’s McGee (including one with Jason Bonham), Joe Russo’s Almost Dead, and Lettuce (including a Jerry Garcia Band tribute set), plus performances from Widespread Panic, George Clinton & P-Funk, Sheryl Crow, Pigeons Playing Ping Pong, Blues Traveler, Turkuaz, Matisyahu, Toots & The Maytals, Moon Taxi, and much, much more.For ticketing and more information, head over to LOCKN’s website here. From August 23rd to 26th, LOCKN’ will return to Arrington, Virginia for its sixth-annual event. Since the festival’s inception in 2013, LOCKN’ has become a premier destination for jam fans, each iteration outdoing the last with lineups chock full of beloved artists, rare collaborations, and standout tributes. This year, on Saturday, August 25th, the festival will honor the iconic New Orleans funk act, The Meters, for a special set titled “Foundation of Funk: Celebrating 50 Years Of The Meters.”Foundation of Funk is led by a pair of original Meters members, bassist George Porter Jr. and drummer Zigaboo Modeliste, and features a rotating cast of all-star musicians. With the intention of keeping the music of The Meters alive and well, the band is frequently a multi-generational affair, with Porter and Modeliste joining forces with staples of the current live music scene to explore The Meters’ extensive songbook.As Zigaboo Modeliste explained to Live For Live Music about the ongoing project, “The Foundation of Funk is really a collaboration of members of The Meters. Right now, it’s just George and myself from the original Meters. We’re celebrating 50 years of The Meters, and The Meters’ music is much more important than any one of the individual Meters. It’s about preserving the music and keeping all that together.”Foundation of Funk – “Cissy Strut” – Brooklyn, NY – 5/20/2016
Today, moe. has announced their first U.S. tour dates of 2019— a four-date run stopping in three cities in the northeast.First, on Friday, February 15th and Saturday, February 16th, the five-piece will head to the State Theatre in Portland, Maine. The following night, Sunday, February 17th, moe. will make their way to The Strand in Providence, RI. Finally, the following Saturday, February 23rd, the band will travel to the Big Apple for a performance at the storied Beacon Theatre.Pre-sale for the newly announced shows begins tomorrow, Wednesday, November 14th at 12 p.m. ET. Public on-sale begins on Friday, Nov 16th at 12 p.m. ET. For more information on ticketing for the newly unveiled dates, head to the band’s website here.While the new announcement certainly stokes fan excitement for next year, moe. still has plenty on their plate for the remainder of 2018. On Wednesday, November 28th, moe. will begin their run of late-2018 shows with a performance at Charleston Music Hall in Charleston, SC. They’ll continue through the southeast from there with stops in Orlando, FL (11/29); Fort Lauderdale, FL (11/30); St. Petersburg, FL (12/1); Ponte Vedra Beach, FL (12/2); Charlotte, NC (12/5); Birmingham, AL (12/6); and Atlanta, GA (12/7, 12/8) before capping the stretch with a show at Nashville, TN’s Marathon Music Works on Sunday, December 9th. Finally, to close out the year, the Buffalo-native band will head to nearby Rochester, NY for a two-night New Year’s run at Kodak Center on Sunday, December 30th and Monday, December 31st.In the early weeks of 2019, ahead of their newly announced northeast run moe. will host their third-ever tropical throe.down in Runaway Bay, Jamaica. Head to the band’s website for more information.
On Tuesday, Chris Robinson Brotherhood continued its run of winter performances earlier this week with a show at Washington’s in Fort Collins, Colorado. The rock band fronted by Chris Robinson provided a soulful mix of 17 rock songs over two sets and an encore, as the band continued to charge into the new month of shows with their fans in Fort Collins.The show began with Robinson and company performing “Roan County Banjo” from their 2017 Betty’s Self-Rising Southern Blends, Vol. 3 LP, followed by live renditions of “Badlands Here We Come”, and a cover of The Black Crowes‘ “Tornado”. The continued the first half of the show with “Tulsa Yesterday” off of 2012’s Big Moon Ritual, followed by The “Chauffeur’s Daughter”, “Star or Stone” (also from Big Moon Ritual), and Bob Dylan‘s “She Belongs to Me”. The first half of the show would come to an end with the band sending fans into the set break with a performance of “Let It Fall”.Related: Chris Robinson Brotherhood Releases Psychedelic “New Cannonball Rag” Music VideoThe band returned for set two by getting the second round going with “Coming ‘Round the Mountain”, “Oak Apple Day”, and “Venus in Chrome”. They kept the music flowing with a rendition of “Rare Birds”, followed by the loose, feel-good tune, “Good to Know”. The second set came to a close with “Narcissus Soaking Wet” and the 2017 ballad, “If You Had a Heart to Break”. The band returned for a one-song encore by covering Freddy Fender‘s “Wasted Days and Wasted Nights”.Fans who didn’t make it to Tuesday’s show can check out photos taken by Conrad Meyer below.Robinson and his band have enjoyed a few days off from performing since Tuesday, and will pick the tour up again tonight with a scheduled gig at the Ogden Theatre in Denver, CO. Head over to Robinson’s website for ticketing info to all remaining dates on his winter tour.Setlist: Chris Robinson Brotherhood | Washington’s | Fort Collins, CO | 2/5/2019Set One: Roan County Banjo, Badlands Here We Come, Tornado (The Black Crowes cover), Tulsa Yesterday, The Chauffeur’s Daughter, Star or Stone, She Belongs to Me (Bob Dylan cover), Let It FallSet Two: Coming ‘Round the Mountain, Oak Apple Day, Venus in Chrome, Rare Birds, Good to Know, Narcissus Soaking Wet, If You Had a Heart to BreakEncore: Wasted Days and Wasted Nights (Freddy Fender cover)Chris Robinson Brotherhood | Washington’s | Fort Collins, CO | 2/5/2019 | Photos: Conrad Meyer Load remaining images
Last week was a difficult one for the jam band community, as word spread about the passing of multi-instrumentalist Kofi Burbridge. The Tedeschi Trucks Band keyboardist/flautist/vocalist passed away on Friday at the age of 57, following years of ongoing cardiac issues.Rest In Peace, Kofi BurbridgeTedeschi Trucks Band Plays Through The News Of Kofi Burbridge’s Passing With Live Debut Of New RecordIn addition to his former bandmates and collaborators, our deepest condolences go out to Kofi’s brother, Oteil Burbridge (Dead & Company, Allman Brothers Band). If you were to ever ask Oteil who his biggest musical influence was, he’d say his brother Kofi. He is the reason Oteil started playing drums, and then bass: to jam with his older brother who displayed immense talent during their childhood. They went on to play together in Knee-Deep, Aquarium Rescue Unit, Frogwings, and Tedeschi Trucks Band together, and cherished the opportunities to collaborate deeply.On Tuesday, Oteil posted a heartfelt tribute to his big brother on his blog.Kofi was my first and biggest hero. He still is. Even though I know all of his human frailties, and even things that used to frustrate me, I will never be any less in awe of his superpowers. They were discovered at a very early age. I thought he was normal as a kid. I didn’t realize how advanced he was until I started playing in high school bands and saw the difference. Trying to keep up with him made me a better player more quickly than most kids my age. I never did catch up to him. There are so many things that I still wanted to learn from him. He was my teacher.I so wanted Kofi to be the one to teach Nigel how to play keyboards. But just as much, I wanted to watch Nigel crawl in his lap as he watched his cartoons like he does with me. I wanted him to see Nigel ride his big boy bike without his training wheels. I wanted Nigel to grow up just knowing and be influenced by the sweetness of his Uncle Kofi.My mom told Jess, “Kofi lived a full and rich life from a very early age.” He started sitting in with jazz legends by age nine. He was making the newspapers in Washington D.C. by that same time. He traveled to Russia with a Washington D.C. theatre company at age 14. He was composing amazing jazz, jazz-rock fusion and classical music by high school. Later on he recorded many records with Derek Trucks Band, Tedeschi Trucks Band and so many others. He got to play and record with his biggest hero, Herbie Hancock. He got to play one of the inaugural balls for the first black president ever elected. He won two Grammys. He traveled the world many times over. He played all the jazz festivals that we dreamed of playing as teenagers. He made almost all of his dreams come true and some we didn’t even know we had. His cup certainly ran over. His death has revealed to me what an indelible mark Kofi made on the music world. The outpouring of love and support from the community has meant so much to me and my family.In the last couple of weeks we had made so many plans about things that we were finally going to get to. His solo record, things that we were going to do under the banner of the Burbridge Brothers, things that we wanted to do with our nephews Kamau and Khalil, and whatever other flights of fancy flew through our heads. Lucky for me, he did get to play his first full set of Jerry Garcia Band and Grateful Dead music with Oteil & Friends in Santa Cruz and Buffalo last year. I was looking forward to watching him discover the great beauty of the rest of that catalogue as he learned more and more songs. He really loved it as you can hear on those shows and his flute playing was particularly inspired those nights. You could hear the reaction from the crowd that they felt it too. Those were my last two shows with him where we played together all night.I have to accept that he is gone. It gets a little harder each day but there are some things that give me comfort. Kofi loved to fly and he often talked about getting his pilot’s license. I picture him in my head giggling to himself that now that he is unencumbered by a body, he can fly so fast and to so many places. Maybe all at once. He’s got to be digging that. People are posting all of these jams that they caught of us together. I can’t even remember them all but that telltale hand-in-glove fit that we had together makes itself evident so quickly that I can’t help but laugh out loud. I laugh through tears mostly of course. But it does make me feel better. It truly does. Because most musicians will probably never know what that’s like. Even if you grow up playing together, unless you’re sharing that much DNA it’s just not the same. I’ll never forget when jazz drummer Billy Drummond said to Kofi and I “I think it’s time that the Burbridge Brothers met the Wooten Brothers!” We said, “Who are the Wooten Brothers?” Haha!I had an idea one day that I talked to Kofi about. I wanted to do a stage at a festival that was dedicated to brothers. The Wooten brothers, the Wood brothers, the Evans brothers, the Dickinson brothers, the Trucks brothers… you get the idea. And we weren’t going to leave out our sisters either. I hope somebody out there will do this in memory of Kofi and I hope that they call it the Kofi Burbridge Memorial Brothers and Sisters Stage. And I hope they will let me get up there even though my brother is gone. All of you musician brothers and sisters out there please play as many shows together as you can. You just never know how much time you have left together.One beautiful thing that has come out of this horrible nightmare is that we now have a new family member to whom we are so greatly indebted that there couldn’t be any way to repay her. Her name is Laura Holl and she was by Kofi’s side through his aneurysm, surgery and recovery in 2017 and again this second time. She spent every day in the hospital with him for two months straight. She never left his side. She gave him strength and love and hope for a new future. And I am so heartbroken for her because Kofi was finally going to settle down with her, and know for the first time in his life what it was like to build, cultivate and enjoy a happy home. She was not only there for Kofi but also for me and my entire family. She is our sister now and forever more. I’m so sorry Laura. You did the hardest things any wife could ever be asked to do without any of the credit or privileges. I am so sad that you never got to experience a new beginning with him.I have Kofi’s laptop and three external hard drives with who knows how much music that he composed on them. Anyone that knows Kofi knows what a computer geek he was. I am going to try my best to record all of the tunes he wrote. I hope I can find the ones that he wrote in high school. They are still some of my favorites and in my opinion some of his best ever. I guarantee that you have only heard the tip of the iceberg of what was floating around in his head. If I am lucky enough to find them I will record as many of them as I can. He has jazz, latin, fusion, funk, heavy metal (for video games), classical, and hybrids blending all of these and more together all at once. He had such a beautiful mind.You couldn’t help but love Kofi if you got to spend any time with him. From just meeting him casually you could hardly realize what a genius he was. He was so laid back and humble. I wish he knew how much he was really appreciated and loved and respected in our community. The tributes on the marquees of the Beacon Theatre, The Capitol Theatre and the Warner Theatre in our hometown of Washington D.C. made me cry so hard. I’m sure that he knows now but that is small consolation for me still on this side of the veil. I know that he knows how much we’re hurting down here. But it also makes me smile when I think about how much he loved planets, solar systems, constellations, galaxies, universes, extra terrestrials and aliens because I know he is flying, and exploring, and seeing all of it for himself. Fly free, Kofi. Fly free my sweet brother.I love you so much man.Rest in Peace, Kofi Burbridge. There will be few spirits, minds, humor, and talents like yours to follow.
The great state of New York hosted a whopping 309 Grateful Dead shows over the course of the band’s 30-year career, ending in 1995. While over half of those shows were in or around the San Francisco-based band’s second home of New York City, the band also cultivated and maintained a significant presence upstate, which started with their infamous gig during a rainstorm on August 16th, 1969 at the iconic Woodstock Music & Art Fair.As the 2019 NHL playoffs start today, it’s more than appropriate to acknowledge that New York has long been a hotbed for the sport of ice hockey, serving as the home to 3 NHL teams and dozens of minor league, collegiate and junior teams. The city of Lake Placid was also the site of the 1980 Winter Olympics, where the USA men’s ice hockey team staged their “Miracle On Ice” en route to winning one of the most unlikely gold medals in Olympic history.On Tour With The Grateful Dead 1987: Reliving The First East Coast Shows After Jerry Garcia’s Coma [Full Videos/Audio]The Grateful Dead, pro hockey, and New York all intersected very nicely in April 1982, when the Grateful Dead played five straight shows in New York hockey arenas during their spring tour. While this tour’s most famous show is the Philadelphia Spectrum show on April 6th (listen below), this week in New York was an eventful one for both the Grateful Dead and for hockey. This was also the first tour where lead guitarist and vocalist Jerry Garcia and bassist Phil Lesh had switched stage positions, so Garcia was now left of center next to keyboardist/vocalist Brent Mydland while Lesh moved out to stage right—the stage plot that would remain for the remainder of the Dead’s career, spawning the terms “Phil side” and “Brent side” amongst latter-day Deadheads.Grateful Dead – Philadelphia, PA – 4/6/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]The week kicked off on April 8th in Syracuse, at the Onondaga County War Memorial Arena. The arena has been home to five minor league hockey teams since opening in 1951 and is the current home of the Syracuse Crunch, but in hockey lore it’s most famous as the filming location for the legendary scene in the 1977 hockey comedy film, Slap Shot, when the Charlestown Chiefs’ infamous Hanson brothers climb into the stands to fight with the opposing team’s fans.Slap Shot Fight ClipHowever, the Grateful Dead brought a decidedly more peaceful vibe with them on this night, delivering the last of the seven shows they would play at this venue over 11 years. The band’s performance on this night was solid, with highlights coming by way of a particularly strong night from rhythm guitarist and vocalist Bob Weir. The first set featured a strong “Let It Grow”, while the second set was anchored by “Playing In The Band”, “Estimated Prophet”, and a strong version of “Not Fade Away” emitting from the “Space” segment of the show.Grateful Dead – Syracuse, NY – 4/8/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]The following night found the band 88 miles west at the Rochester War Memorial, which was built in 1955 and has remained the home of the AHL’s Rochester Americans since 1956. In 1982, the “Amerks” were on an upswing that would culminate in Calder Cup championships in 1983 and 1987 and a trip to the finals in 1984. On April 9th, 1982, the Dead were on an upswing of their own from the previous night’s show. The first set was highlighted by an “Alabama Getaway” > “Greatest Story Ever Told” opening duo, a nice “Bird Song”, and a set-closing “China Cat Sunflower” > “I Know You Rider”. The second set raised the bar even further with a rare second-set appearance of “To Lay Me Down” and an excellent set-closing run of “The Other One” > “Stella Blue” > “Goin’ Down the Road Feelin’ Bad”. The set closed with a cover of The Rolling Stones‘ “Satisfaction”—and when a Dead show contained a version of the Rolling Stones classic, it was almost always a sign that the band was having a hot night. As Bob revealed in David Gans and Peter Simon’s 1985 book, Playing in the Band, “‘Satisfaction’ just came up one night…one of those little clouds of madness that drifted across the stage. We do it every now and then, usually when I‘m feeling pretty ringy. We have never done that one remotely the same way twice, and obviously we’ve never, ever rehearsed it. There are a number of songs we’ve never rehearsed, but ‘Satisfaction’ is one of the songs that rehearsal would ruin.”Grateful Dead – Rochester, NY – 4/9/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]Saturday, April 10th, 1982 was an off-day for the Grateful Dead, but not for Jerry Garcia, who took the opportunity to sneak across state lines to New Jersey to play not one but two solo acoustic shows at the Capitol Theatre in Passaic, with the second one running until after 2:00 am.Jerry Garcia Solo Acoustic – Passaic, NJ – 4/10/18 – Full Audio (Early Show)[Uploaded by nognuisagoodgnu]Jerry Garcia Solo Acoustic – Passaic, NJ – 4/10/18 – Full Audio (Late Show)[Uploaded by nognuisagoodgnu]Garcia’s late night may explain the slower start to the Grateful Dead’s first of two shows at Long Island’s Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, NY on April 11th, 1982. Known colloquially as “Nassau” by both Deadheads and hockey fans, the building was the full-time (and now part-time) home of the NHL’s New York Islanders, who in April 1982 were the two-time defending Stanley Cup champions. Nassau opened in 1972 for the Islanders’ debut season, and the Dead would ultimately play 42 shows there over 12 multi-night runs from 1973 through 1994.The first set on April 11th had a somewhat slower vibe at times, but it was ultimately redeemed by nice versions of “Althea”, “Beat It On Down The Line” and “Let It Grow”. The second set featured a traditional Sunday airing of “Samson and Delilah” followed by a non-traditional second set version of Mydland original “Never Trust A Woman” and a “Truckin’” that generated the loud and expected cheers as its lines about Buffalo and New York were delivered.Grateful Dead – Uniondale, NY – 4/11/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]However, the Dead returned to Nassau the following night and delivered the strongest start-to-finish show of the five-show run in the state. Opening with then-rarity “Iko Iko” was a good omen, and other highlights came from a mid-set “Bird Song” and the closing pairing of “Looks Like Rain” and “Deal”. Meanwhile, the second set hit greater heights with new addition “Man Smart Woman Smarter” as the opener followed by a lengthy, sparkling “Sugaree”. A standout version of “Estimated Prophet” followed (complete with a second “mid-song” solo at its conclusion) before dropping into “Uncle John’s Band”, and “The Other One” that came out of “Space” was deep enough to trick Bob into accidentally signing its second verse twice. In addition, for the second time in a week, “Satisfaction” appeared. This time, the Stones classic served as the encore, and as the lights came up, those famously invisible clouds of Grateful Dead magic were left hanging in the Nassau’s rafters.Grateful Dead – Uniondale, NY – 4/12/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]As it turned out, Nassau’s primary tenants had some use for that magic. The very next night, the defending-champ Islanders were trailing 3-1 with less than 6 minutes left in the deciding game of a first-round playoff series with the then-lowly Pittsburgh Penguins, a sub-.500 team who had miraculously hung around despite being severely overmatched. But when all seemed lost, the Islanders scored two late goals to tie the game and then went on to win by scoring early in sudden-death overtime. The Islanders admitted the Penguins “scared us half to death” before going on to win their third of four consecutive Stanley Cups (NHL link below). The Islanders would not actually lose a playoff series until the 1984 finals, when they were finally dethroned by the Edmonton Oilers and their 23-year-old wunderkind Wayne Gretzky.Islanders vs. Penguins – 1982 Stanley Cup Playoffs – Nassau Coliseum[Video: Disengage]While that hockey magic played out on Long Island, the Grateful Dead also made a little history of their own that day when Jerry and Bob made the first of five appearances by Grateful Dead members on Late Night with David Letterman, where they engaged in humorous chatter with Dave and played acoustic versions of “Deep Elem Blues” and “Monkey and the Engineer”.Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir On Letterman – 4/13/82Last but not least, the band finished out their week of gigs in New York hockey arenas by heading back upstate to Glens Falls, NY. The compact 4,974-capacity Glens Falls Civic Center was built in 1977 and was then the home of the AHL’s Adirondack Red Wings who, in April 1982, were the defending Calder Cup champions—the first of four Calder Cups they would win over the next decade. Since 2015, the arena has been home to the ECHL’s Adirondack Thunder.The Dead rounded out this week with one of the best first sets of the year featuring a “Jack Straw” opener, a big early surprise in the form of an electric “Deep Elem Blues” that was doubtlessly prompted by its acoustic performance on TV the night before, a welcome “Lazy Lightning” > “Supplication” with a couple lyrical miscues, and a fiery “Bertha” to end the set. The second set opened with an unusually long, involved “China Cat Sunflower” that segued into the expected “I Know You Rider”. That was followed by the biggest highlight from these five shows: one of the finest versions of “Playing In The Band” from the era, a 16-minute version that a featured Bob using a slide to beautiful effect before yielding the stage to allow drummers Bill Kreutzmann and Mickey Hart to deliver their nightly, spirited and improvised duet.Grateful Dead – Glens Falls, NY – 4/14/82 – Full Audio[Audio uploaded by Jonathan Aizen]From there, the band would leave New York for shows in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Maryland to finish out the spring tour, but all things considered, it was a solid week of business for the Grateful Dead, the state of New York, and four of its hockey arenas. Hopefully, someone from the New York Islanders sent a thank you note to the Grateful Dead.
On Tuesday, Summerfest announced the lineup of headliners for their 2019 event, set to take place in late June and early July on 75 acres of permanent festival grounds along the shore of Lake Michigan in Milwaukee., WI Since debuting in 1968, Summerfest has evolved into what is now recognized as “The World’s Largest Music Festival.” During the festival, which takes place from June 26th–30th and from July 2nd–30th this year, over 800 acts will deliver more than 1,000 performances across 12 stages.Presented by American Family Insurance and produced by the non-profit Milwaukee World Festival Incthe festival’s lineup is as gigantic as it is diverse, offering a little something for everyone. This year’s 52nd edition of the massive festival will feature performances by Brandie Carlile, Cole Swindell, The Head and the Heart, The Lonely Island, A Boogie Wit Da Hoodie, The National, Steve Aoki, Chicago, Jason Mraz, Brothers Osborne, WALK THE MOON, Young the Giant, Foreigner, Third Eye Blind, Jimmy Eat World, Lizzo, X Ambassadors, 3 Doors Down, CHVRCHES, Big Gigantic, Sublime with Rome, Courtney Barnett, Quinn XCII, First Aid Kit, Atmosphere, T-Pain, Vic Mensa, Taking Back Sunday, Rodrigo y Gabriela, Dashboard Confessional, Judah & the Lion, Catfish and the Bottlemen, Chaka Khan, Styx, Loverboy, Frenship, Chris Janson, Elle King, Gryffin, Dispatch, Skillet, Chase Rice, La Sonora Ponceña, August Burns Red, St. Paul & the Broken Bones, Hanson, LANCO, Daya, Chelsea Cutler, lovelytheband, Chris Robinson Brotherhood, Semisonic, COIN, Switchfoot, The Roots, Matoma, Neon Trees, Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Lake Street Dive, Ludacris, Los Lonely Boys, Jimmie Allen, Lindsay Ell, Max, Anne-Marie, Collective Soul, Two Friends, Chris Lane, Jordan Davis, Matisyahu, SOJA, Riley Green, Dylan Scott, Steve Earle & The Dukes, Dark Star Orchestra, Brother Ali, Donna Missal, Robert Randolph & The Family Band, Viola, Lauren Alaina, YUNGBLUD, Silverstein, Guided By Voices, Jesus Jones, 38 Special, Dumpstaphunk, X, Nora Collins, Ozomatli, Mitchell Tenpenny, 10,000 Maniacs, Foghat, Andrew W.K., Cory Wong, Common Kings, Reverend Horton Heat, The Spinners, Elvin Bishop’s Big Fun Trio, GGOOLLDD, Royal Tusk, Sa-Roc, Silent Planet, Brandy Clark, Aaron Lee Tasjan, SHAED, Allman Betts Band, The Suffers, The Association, Weathers, Hawthorne Heights, Sego, Juice, Big Head Todd and the Monsters, flora cash, Carousel Kings, HARDY, Nikki Jean, Otis Taylor and the Psychedelic Banjo Posse, Oxymorrons, Trea Landon, DJ Keezy, DJ Abilities, Matt Hoyles, Sweet Crude, Leonid & Friends, The Lioness, deM atlaS, Tenille Arts, Trap Manny, Evidence, The Beths, Black Pumas and Adia Victoria.The newly announced headliners on the festival stages join previously-revealed American Family Insurance Amphitheater headliners including Thomas Rhett with Dustin Lynch and Russell Dickerson (6/26); The Outlaw Music Festival featuring Willie Nelson & Family, Phil Lesh & Friends, The Avett Brothers, Counting Crows, Alison Krauss, Dawes, and Trapper Schoepp (6/27); Jason Aldean with Kane Brown and Carly Pearce (6/28); Bon Iver with Lord Huron and Julien Baker (6/29); Zac Brown Band with Drake White (6/30); Lionel Richie with Michael McDonald (7/2); Jennifer Lopez (7/3); The Killers with Death Cab For Cutie (7/5); Billie Eilish (7/6); and Lil Wayne, Snoop Dogg, and ScHoolboy Q (7/7).“For 11 days on 12 stages, Summerfest delivers on its reputation as ‘The World’s Largest Music Festival,’ offering a diverse lineup of artists to our fans on Milwaukee’s lakefront,” says Don Smiley, President and CEO of Milwaukee World Festival, Inc, in a statement. “The completion of the first phase of the new American Family Insurance Amphitheater will make its debut this year during Summerfest, and, immediately after the festival, work will begin on the second phase of the construction project. The grand opening of the amphitheater will take place in June 2020, at which time $148 million will have been invested in Henry Maier Festival Park in the last 15 years. We are committed to remaining a top destination for music fans worldwide, as well as a driver of $186 million dollars of economic impact for the region.”Dates, times and stage locations, and additional headliners for Summerfest 2019 will be announced in the coming weeks. For a limited time, attendees can purchase the U.S. Cellular 11-Day Power Pass for $110, which includes admission for all 11 dats. The U.S. Cellular 3-Day pass is also available for $57, and is valid for one GA admission per day for three different days of the festival.You can check out the lineup for Summerfest 2019 below. For more details and ticketing information, head to the Summerfest website.
In March, three-time Grammy-winning, jazz-funk collective Snarky Puppy released their 12th studio album, Immigrance, via the band’s GroundUP Music label. The follow-up to 2016’s Grammy-winning Culcha Vulcha is highlighted by a distinctly different, dark and heavier tone.On Friday, Snarky Puppy released a new tune, “Embossed”. Written by the band’s own Bill Laurance, “Embossed” is the first in a series of bonus and extended tracks from the Immigrance recording sessions. The remaining five bonus tracks will be released throughout the remainder of 2019.“During the Immigrance sessions, we recorded more songs than we could squeeze onto the album,” says bandleader Michael League. “So, over the course of the year, we’ll be releasing three brand new, full-length compositions by Bill Laurance, Marcelo Woloski, and Bob Reynolds, as well as extended versions of three of the album’s tracks.”Laurance also says of the track, “‘Embossed’ is a reaction to the social, political and environmental anxiety of the times. It’s a musical call to arms, asking the listener to engage both as an individual and as a member of larger movements for change.”Listen to Snarky Puppy’s new track “Embossed” below:Snarky Puppy – “Embossed”[Audio: groundUPmusicNYC]Snarky Puppy recently embarked on a massive world tour in support of their new album, which will run through November. See below for a full list of the band’s upcoming tour dates. For ticketing and more information, head to Snarky Puppy’s website.Snarky Puppy 2019 World Tour Dates:Apr 26 – The Forum – Melbourne, AUSMay 10 – The Strand Ballroom – Providence, RI*May 11 – The Music Hall – Portsmouth, NH*May 12 – House of Blues – Boston, MA*May 14 – Town Ballroom – Buffalo, NY*May 15 – Roxian Theatre – Pittsburgh, PA*May 16 – Masonic Cleveland – Cleveland, OH*May 17 – The Vogue – Indianapolis, [email protected] 18 – The Riviera Theatre – Chicago, [email protected] 19 – Atomic Cowboy Pavillion – St. Louis, [email protected] 23 – Pabst Theater – Milwaukee, [email protected] 24 – Orpheum – Madison, [email protected] 25 – Palace Theatre – St. Paul, [email protected] 28 – The Paramount – Seattle, WA^May 29 – Roseland Ballroom – Portland, OR^May 30 – Paramount Theatre – Oakland, CA^May 31 – Orpheum Theatre – Los Angeles, CA^June 1 – House of Blues – San Diego, CA^June 3 – Brooklyn Bowl – Las Vegas, NV^June 4 – The Commonwealth – Salt Lake City, UT^June 5 – Jackson Hole Center for the Arts – Jackson Hole, WY^June 7 – Red Rocks Amphitheatre – Morrison, CO#June 8 – Mishawaka Amphitheater – Mishawaka, CO&June 11 – Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts – Kansas City, MO%June 12 – Minglewood Hall – Memphis, TN%June 13 – Pisgah Brewing Company – Black Mountain, NC%June 14 – DC Jazz Festival @ The Anthem – Washington DCJune 15 – Brooklyn Steel – Brooklyn, NY%June 24 – Vienna Jazz Festival – Vienna, ATJune 26 – Leopolis Jazz Fest – Lviv, UAJune 28 – Rock Werchter 2019 – Werchter, BEJuly 4 – Jazz a Vienne Festival – Vienne, FRJuly 6 – Love Supreme Festival – Glynde, UKJuly 11 – Parco delle Rose – Udine, ITJuly 12 – Anfiteatro Romano – Avella, ITJuly 14 – Arena Derthona – Tortona, ITJuly 16 – Parque Marechal Carmona – Cascais, PTJuly 17 – Jazza Juan Festival – Juan-les-Pins, FRJuly 18 – Antiche Terme Romane – Fordongianus, ITJuly 19 – Umbria Jazz / Arena Santa Giuliana – Perugia, ITJuly 20 – Pori Jazz Festival – Pori, FIJuly 23 – Noches del Botánico – Madrid, ESSept 4 -The Fillmore – Philadelphia, PASept 5 – Toad’s Place – New Haven, CTSept 6 – MTELUS – Montreal, QCSept 7 – Phoenix Concert Theatre – Toronto, ONSept 8 – University of Michigan – Ann Arbor, MISept 11 – The Madison Theater – Covington, KYSept 13 – The National – Richmond, VASept 14 – NC Museum of Art at Joseph M. Bryan Jr Theater – Raleigh, NCSept 15 – NODA Brewery – Charlotte, NCSept 18 – The Ryman – Nashville, TNSept 20 – Tabernacle – Atlanta, GASept 21 – Avondale Brewery – Birmingham, ALSept 23 – Music Farm – Charleston, SCSept 24 – Florida Theatre – Jacksonville, FLSept 25 – The Plaza Live – Orlando, FLSept 26 – Ruth Eckerd Hall – Clearwater, FLSept 27 – Soul Kitchen – Mobile, ALSept 28 – The Music Box – New Orleans, LASept 29 – Monterey Jazz Festival – Monterey, CAOct 1 – Commodore – Vancouver, BCOct 3 – Warehouse Live – Houston, TXOct 4 – Cain’s Ballroom – Tulsa, OKOct 5 – Bomb Factory – Dallas, TXOct 24 – Falkoner Theater – Copenhagen, DKOct 25 – Train – Aarhus, DKOct 26 – Grosse Freiheit – Hamburg, DEOct 29 – Columbia Halle – Berlin, DEOct 30 – E-Werk – Cologne, DEOct 31 – Capitol – Hannover, DENov 1 – TivoliVredenburg – Utrecht, NLNov 4 – De Roma – Antwerp, BENov 6 – O2 Academy – Bournemouth, UKNov 7 – Rock City – Nottingham, UKNov 8 – O2 Academy – Bristol, UKNov 9 – O2 Academy – Oxford, UKNov 11 – Ulster Hall – Belfast, IENov 12 – Olympia – Dublin, IENov 14 – Royal Albert Hall – London, UKNov 15 – O2 Apollo – Manchester, UKNov 16 – Barrowlands – Glasgow, UKNov 18 – Zenith Club – Nantes, FRNov 19 – Le Zenith – Toulouse, FRNov 20 – Cenon Le Rocher de Palmer – Bordeaux, FRNov 22 – Salle Pleyel – Paris, FRNov 23 – Théâtre Municipal Raymond Devos – Tourcoing, FRNov 25 – Rockhal – Luxembourg City, LUNov 26 – Batschkapp – Frankfurt, DENov 27 – Muffathalle – Munich, DENov 28 – Volkshaus Zürich – Zurich, CHNov 29 – Im Wizemann – Stuttgart, DENov 30 – Löwensaal – Nuremberg, DE# with Michael Franti & Spearhead and Victoria Canal* with House of [email protected] with Alina Engibaryan^ with Roosevelt Collier% with Breastfist& with DJ Boomtown and Mama MagnoliaView Tour Dates
Petaluma, CA-based Lagunitas Brewing Company has announced the 2019 schedule for their annual free Live At Lagunitas summer concert series, held at the Petaluma Amphitheatre.The Nor Cal craft brewery will begin their Live At Lagunitas series with a performance by The War & Treaty on May 27th, followed by FIDLAR (6/4); Antibalas (6/18); Thundercat (6/24); The Budos Band (7/9); James McMurtry (8/5); The Nude Party (8/19); Shannon and the Clams (8/26); Man Man (9/3); Newport Folk Festival Presents “Folkin’ Friends” (9/23); Paul Cauthen (9/24); STRFKR (10/1); and Caroline Rose on October 7th.Although the concert series is free, attendees must obtain pre-reserved tickets to enter the concert grounds. Fans can head here for a list of Live At Lagunitas’s performance schedule, ticketing “on-sale” times, and more information.
Mahzarin R. BanajiRichard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics, Faculty of Arts and SciencesTo B.F. Skinner, the observables of behavior — whether it be the measurable peck of a pigeon’s beak or the bar press of a rat’s paw — constituted the only legitimate foundation on which a science of psychology could be built.The Harvard professor emphasized the importance of “orderly data” and repeatedly refined his methods in order to make for systematic evidence. His methods, the most famous of which is the eponymous Skinner box, enabled the precise timing of events and the objective recording of responses, giving psychology the paraphernalia typical of the older natural sciences.In understanding why any organism behaves the way it does, Skinner saw no place for dwelling on a person’s “intentions” or “goals.” For him, it was outward behavior and its environment that mattered. His most important contribution to psychological science was the concept of reinforcement, formalized in his principles of operant conditioning (in contrast to Ivan Pavlov’s principles of classical conditioning, which along with J.B. Watson’s extreme environmentalism strongly influenced his own thinking).Behavior increases in probability when its outcomes are reinforced. In other words, a behavior such as a smile or even a complex pattern of behavior (e.g., superstitious behavior) occurs because similar previous responses have been rewarded in particular contexts. Of course, behavior had to be broken down into smaller steps to achieve optimal reinforcement, and each step had to receive feedback to shape new and highly complex strings of behavior.By Skinner’s standard, very little of today’s science of psychology would be regarded as scientifically legitimate. Looking at the human mind itself, which has been psychology’s primary focus since the cognitive revolution, simply horrified him. But while psychology has moved in new directions, Skinnerian procedures have been effectively applied to the understanding and modification of human behavior in contexts such as industry, business, government, education, prisons, and mental institutions. His work also provided insight into methods by which children are raised, with specific applications to attachment and separation distress, crying, imitation, social referencing, and the acquisition of skills.